NORTH-BRABANT. The Duchy of Brabant was formally established in 1183/1184, with the elevation of the land county Brabant (between Dender and Senne) to duchy in favor of Henry I of Brabant. In 1430 Brabant is one of the Burgundian Netherlands under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy, who choose their residence in Brussels.
Mary of Burgundy becomes Duchess of Burgundy, after the death of her father Charles the Bold in 1477. She marries Maximilian of Austria, who, after the sudden death of Mary in 1482 acts as regent. The 'Burgundian Netherlands' become the 'Habsburg Netherlands’. After the abdication by Charles V (grandson of Mary) in 1555, he was succeeded by his son Philip II. As Philip II is King of Spain, there is since then usually spoken of the ‘Spanish Netherlands’. After Emperor Charles V had incorporated the duchy of Guelders in 1543, a more or less continuous and exhaustive system of counties was developed. Only in the southern part the Principality of Liège formed a large enclave. This assembly is also referred to as the Seventeen Provinces. The 80-year war ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Seventeen Provinces are divided into the Northern Netherlands (the Republic of the Seven United Provinces) and the Southern Netherlands. The border between the Republic and the Southern Netherlands (see red line in the adjacent map) is determined by the front situation at that time between the Dutch rebels and the Spaniards. The border also divides the Duchy of Brabant into two parts. The northern part is broadly consistent with our current province of North Brabant. An important indirect consequence of this treaty is the fact that the Low German Reformed faith becomes the church of the Republic. All Catholic goods forfeited to the government: not only churches and chapels, but also monasteries and their properties. The Catholics have  to use so-called "hidden churches" until 1795: they are allowed to hold services, but not in buildings that are identified on the outside as a church. (See also the page about Groningen.) In 1795 Brabant is annexed by France and from 1815 Brabant is a part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands (the current Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg together). on September 21, 1815 William I takes the constitutional oath as King of the Netherlands. The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1, 2 and 3) will remain in existance until 1830. In 1830 the Southern Netherlands secede. It would take until 1839 before King William I acknowledges the new Belgium. Since Maastricht and Luxembourg remain occupied by the troops of the king, William is demanding Limburg and Luxembourg. He gets the eastern part of Limburg (2) and the German-speaking part of Luxembourg (5). As a result of the Treaty of London (1867)  Luxembourg is actually independent, though the country still remains united in personal union with the Netherlands (House of Nassau-Weilburg). This personal union with the Netherlands is coming to an end in 1890, when King William III dies without a male heir to leave. Wilhelmina becomes Queen of the Netherlands and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. The Walloon part of Luxembourg (4) becomes a part    of Belgium in 1839. This makes the current borders of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg broadly defined as are the limits of our present province of North Brabant.
Map of the present province of North Brabant.
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