OFFSPRING. In this part of the website shows the descendants of Jacob Peters (to Spijck) and Peterke Henrix (to Usquert). I describe the origin of the family in another part of the website. In the male line, most people assume the surname Alma. Some are recorded with their patronymics only. The next page shows a brief overview chart of the married sons. The subsequent page shows an overview chart of all the married offspring of Jacob Peters (to Spijck) and Peterke Henrix (to Usquert), including those in the female line. Globally, in this overview you can see, that only about half of the children get married (sometimes even less). This is largely due to young deaths. In this second overview, of course, there are more names than ALMA alone. Common other names in this schedule are, for example: AMSING, BOS, HALSEMA and KETELAAR. The names: MEIJER, MULLER, MULDER, PAAGMAN, SWART and WIERINGA are slightly less frequent. For a complete overview, I refer to the details on the last page. But first a brief intermezzo about the relationship between patronymics, surnames and relationships. PATRONYMICS, SURNAMES AND RELATIONSHIP. Before the introduction of the Civil Registry in the Netherlands in about 1811 (about 1876 in Germany), everyone was free to choose a family name. If someone had a surname (and not just a patronymic), it was often used to distinguish oneself. For example to indicate a (alleged) lineage of a rich and/or noble family from the past, a town or a farm of birth. Sometimes, the use of the surname is leaved out a generation and is then picked up again. Sometimes a person is changing his surname more than once in the course of time. At the introduction of the Civil Registry, every adult male had to choose a surname. From that moment on that surname (sometimes called generic name) is the part of the name that he or she receives from the previous generation. In general that is the name of the father, so the family relationship is identified through the male line. That seems to lead to unambiguous conclusions, but that is only apparent. Everyone knows that people with the same surname are not always related. Think of the name 'De Vries' or 'Jones'. The surname "Alma" is used in 6 different unrelated genders. Conversely, too: people with different surnames may indeed be relatives. EXAMPLES. You can see in the overview of the married sons of Hendrik Jans and Frouwke Lamberts, that the men have taken up different surnames: ter Schouw Stiekema or Stijkema, Lammerts and Bot or Bottema. The same can be seen in the overview of the married sons of Otto Rempts and Hendrickje Jans. The surnames in this overview are: Ten Oever and Bos And in the overview of the married sons of Ponse Ariens and Jentjen Jansen you will find different surnames as well: Langeland and Bos I could not find any consanguinity between Otto and Rempts Ponse Ariens, so that applies to the men with the surname BOS in the corresponding charts as well. On the page of Margaretha Jans Wieringa we see, that she and her husband Edo Wilms Alma have common ancestors: Pieter Jacobs Allema and Trijntje Arents. Furthermore, it is remarkable that Margaret's great-grandfather (= John Martinus Redmers) is the grandson of Cornelis Redmers and Aaltje Willems and that Margaretha's great-grandmother (= Catherina Jans, granddaughter of Pieter Jacobs Allema and Trijntje Arents and spouse of Johannes Martinus Redmers ) is a great granddaughter of (yes) the same Cornelis Redmers and Aaltje Willems. The overview below shows a blood relationship between Catharina Jans on the one hand and her two spouses (John Martinus Redmers and Reinder Jacobs Rijpma) on the other hand (see fourth row from below). The red and black parts correspond to my own ancestor table. The red section are my direct ancestors. The green sections do not match my ancestor table.
Jan Willems Boelens Pietertje Pieters Pieter Jacobs van Allema Trijntje Arents X 1711 X 1741 Redmer Cornelis Ymke Freerks Willem Cornelis Bauke Jans X 1716 Cornelis Redmers Aaltje Willems X 1713 X 1677 Theodorus Derks Catharina Redmers Jacob Reinders Trinje Freerks X 1741 X 1740 Adriaantje Jacobs Boelens Cornelis Willems Jacob Ariens Bos Joanna Derks X 1767 Johannes Martinus Redmers Catharina Jans X 1766 Jacob Pieters Grietje Eleonora Tjaards X 1755 Reinder Jacobs Rijpma XX 1778 Jacob Cornelis Boelens Martha Jans Pel X 1749 X 1774 Jacob Ariens Boelens Alegonda Jans Redmers Arien Boelens Margaretha Duirts X 1717 Jan Redmers Harmentje Willems X ca. 1686 X ca. 1689 Freerk Ubbes Grietje Isebrants X 1704 Arent Heeres Cornelijske Ubbes X 1688 Ubbe Jelmers  (2) Trijntien Janssen X 1667 Jan Jacobs Bos Cornelis Jans Wieringa Margaretha Koenes Wakkerman X 1800 Freerk Jacobs Alma Derkje Willems X 1799 Catharina Reinders Riepma Margaretha Reinders Rijpma Jacobus Jacobs Boelens X 1805 X1798 Margaretha Jans Wieringa Edo Wilms Alma Johannes ten Oever X 1852 XX1863 Lambertus Wilhelmus Leber XXX 1878 Jan Cornelis Wieringa Grietje Pieters Bos  (2) X 1828 Willem Freerks Alma Catharina Edes Sijbenga X 1828 Reinder Jacobs Eetje Clasen Claas Cornelis Geertjen Jans Freerk Ubbes Corneliske Hendriks X 1640 Ubbe Jelmers  (1) Geertien Tewes X 1669 X 1706 Jan Luirts Grietje Ubbes X 1643 Luurt Julles Boelens Adriaantje Ariens X ca. 1603 Fokeltje Pieters X < 1655 Isebrand Jans Grietje Heres X ca. 1671 Willem Luirts Redmer Cornelis Aafke Jansen X 1645 Boele Luirts Evrouw Jacobs X 1644
In the above diagram, in addition to the cited example, there are even more cases of blood relations between spouses. The lines up are easy to follow. Not every lineage is signed. For example, Freerk Jacobs Alma (from my tribe) and Derkje Willems have common great grandparents as well: Ubbe Jelmers and Trijntien Jansen. The limited RC wedding market and the limited mobility before 1850 will be debit to having common ancestors within a small number of generations. This wedding market will be limited even more when the having of bride and groom is considered. HENRICUS JANS SWART I found the following example in the ‘Memorandum of Succession’ of Henricus (Hindrik) Jans Swart (s). A ‘Memorandom of Succesion’ is a document that shows all the belongings and debts of a deceased person to see if taxes have to be paid. In this case, all that is left is a debt of 1700,- guilders, so no taxes have to be paid. The memorandum states that, “due to the marriage contract of Dec. 29th, 1813, Henricus was married to Johanna Hindriks Duurken with a marriage settlement”. According to this marriage settlement, Joanna receives 600 guilders in case Hindrik dies first, which is the case. The rest is divided among the remaining heirs (underlining according to the memorandum): Elisabeth Derks Swart, wife of Roelf Smit, farmer living in Baflo. Catharina Derks Swart, wife of Paping, silver smith living in Uithuistermeeden. Trijntje -, Derk -, Jurrien -, en Hillechien Derks Swart, the first two are of age, all four children without occupation and living with their mother, all six children heirs of and representing their deceased father Derk Jans Swart, during his life farmer in Maarhuizen, born in marriage with Maria Derks, farmer living in Maarhuizen. Derk Jans Swart  was a full brother of the testator. Harm Jurriens Mulder, farmer living in Nieuwcompagnie, municipality of Hoogezand. Catharina Jurriens Mulder, wife of Lammert Berents Ekkel, innkeper living in Kleinemeer, municipality of  Sappemeer. Anna Jurriens Mulder, maid living in Bedum. Theodorus Jurriens Mulder, farmers help, living in Veendam. Hillechien Jurriens Mulder, without occupation, living in Noorderhoogebrug. Hindrik Jurriens Mulder, without occupation, living in Kijl. Jan Jurriens Mulder, without occupation, living in Nieuwecompagnie. All seven children heirs of and representing their deceased father Jurrien Jans Mulder born in marriage with the deceased Elsien Jans, during their lives farmers in Windeweer, municipality of Hoogezand. Jurrien Jans Mulder was a full brother of the testator. The last four children are minors and represented by their guardian Hermannus Veenkamp, farmer in Kijl, municipality of Hoogezand. Johanna Egbertha Wijnkes Kamphuis, wife of Johannes Kornelius ten Oever, farmer living in Eenrum, enigst kind, erfgenaam en representant van wijlen Wijnke Kamphuis en Margaretha Jans Swart, welke laatstgenoemde was een halfzuster van den erflater. Hillechien -, Harmannus -, Bouwina -, Jan -, Wilhelmus - en Bernardus Geerts Swart, alle zes minderjarig, nog zonder beroep en bij na te vernoemen  hunne moeder inwonende, kinderen,  erfgenamen en representanten van wijlen Geert Jans Swart in leven landbouwer in Nieuwecompagnie gemeente Hoogezand, in echte verwekt bij Catharina Harms de Lange, landbouwersche te Nieuwecompagnie voormeld woonachtig, welke Geert Jans Swart was een halve broeder van den erflater. Margaretha Jans Swart, wife of Jan Rosing, voetbode der posterij te Groningen halfzuster van den erflater. Anna Jans Swart, wife of Bernardus Smit, kastelein wonende te Noorderhoogebrug Groningen, halfzuster van den erflater.
From the above examples it may be shown that the boundaries between blood relationship and relationship by marriage can be blurred. Patronymics and surnames can be a guide, but do not give any certainty.
Jan Derks Swart Catharina Jurriens Hillechien Geerts Derk Jans Swart Maria Derks Holthuis Jurrien Jans Mulder Elsien Jans Henricus Jans Swart Johanna Hindriks Duurken Johan Ignatius Roosen Margaretha Jans Swart Geert Jans Swart Catharina Harms de Lange Bernardus Jans Smit Anna Jans Swart Wienke Jans Kamphuis Maria Jans Swart Elisabeth Catharina Trijntje Derk Jurrien Hillechien Harm Catharina Anna Theodorus Hillechien Hindrik Jan Johanna Egbertha Hillechien Harmannus Bouwina Jan Wilhelmus Bernardus X1758 XX 1769 X 1793 X 1806 X 1815 X 1789 X 1793 X 1814 X 1806